Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF)

Literacy is the use of language skills in everyday life: at home, in school, at work and in the community.

Literacy describes the series of skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing), that are needed to make sense of the world around us. It also means using literacy skills and knowing how to use English.

The National Literacy Framework

The Literacy Framework gives a detailed description of the expectations for literacy for all pupils in Key Stages 2 and 3 (years 3-9). The Literacy Framework is split into strands, elements and aspects:


Strand Element Aspect
Oracy across the curriculum Developing and presenting information and ideas Speaking
Collaboration and Discussion
Reading across the curriculum Locating, selecting and using information Reading Strategies
Responding to what has been said Comprehension
Response and Analysis
Writing across the curriculum Organising ideas and information Meaning, Purposes
Structure and Organisation
Writing accurately Language
Handwriting, Grammar,
Punctuation and Spelling

The National Numeracy Framework

Numeracy refers to the application of mathematical understanding in daily activities at school, at home, at work and in the community.

Numeracy describes the set of skills needed to tackle real-world problems in a variety of situations by applying numerical reasoning in order to plan how to solve a problem, and then carrying out the mathematical procedures to find the solution.

The National Numeracy Framework

The Numeracy Framework gives a detailed description of the expectations for numeracy for all pupils in Key Stages 2 and 3 (years 3-9). The Numeracy Framework is split into strands and elements:


Strand Element
Developing Numerical Reasoning Identify Processes and connections
Represent and communicate
Using Number Skills Use Number Facts and Relationships
Fractions, Decimals, Percentages and Ratios
Calculate Using Mental and Written Methods
Estimate and Check
Manage Money
Using Measuring Skills Length, Weight/Mass, Capacity
Area and Volume; Angle and Position
Using Data Skills Collect and record Data
Present and Analyse Data
Interpret Results

Copies of the Literacy and Numeracy Framework for 7 – 16 year olds in Wales can be downloaded from the website.